Nutrient Dense Bone Broth.
Science validates what our grandmothers knew. Rich homemade chicken broths help cure colds. Stock and broth made from animal bones and connective tissues contains minerals in a form the body can absorb easily—not just calcium but also magnesium, phosphorus, silicon, sulphur and trace minerals. It contains the broken down material from cartilage and tendons–stuff like chondroitin sulphates and glucosamine, now sold as expensive supplements for arthritis and joint pain.
When broth is cooled, it congeals due to the presence of gelatin. The use of gelatin as a therapeutic agent goes back to the ancient Chinese. Gelatin was probably the first functional food, it is a hydrophilic colloid, which means that it attracts and holds liquids, it facilitates digestion by attracting digestive juices to food in the gut. Gelatin was found to be useful in the treatment of a long list of diseases including peptic ulcers, tuberculosis, diabetes, muscle diseases, infectious diseases, jaundice and cancer. Babies had fewer digestive problems when gelatin was added to their milk.
Bone broth is a necessity in cultures that do not use milk because only stock made from bones and dairy products provides calcium in a form that the body can easily assimilate. It is also a necessity when meat is a luxury item, because gelatin in properly made broth helps the body use protein in an efficient way.
GAPS Broth- Dr Natasha Campbell
Homemade meat or fish stock.
Meat and fish stocks provide building blocks for the rapidly growing cells of the gut lining and they have a soothing effect on any areas of inflammation in the gut. That is why they aid digestion and have been known for centuries as healing folk remedies for the digestive tract. Do not use commercially available soup stock granules or bullion cubes, they are highly processed and are full of detrimental ingredients. Chicken stock is particularly gentle on the stomach and is very good to start from. To make good meat stock you need joints, bones, a piece of meat on the bone, a whole chicken, giblets from chicken, goose or duck, whole pigeons, pheasants or other inexpensive meats. It is essential to use bones and joints, as they provide the healing substances, not so much the muscle meats. Ask the butcher to cut in half the large tubular bones, so you can get the bone marrow out of them after cooking. Put the bones, joints and meats into a large pan and fill it with water, add natural unprocessed salt to your taste at the beginning of cooking and about a teaspoon of black peppercorns, roughly crushed. Bring to boil, cover and simmer on a low heat for 2.5-3 hours. You can make fish stock the same way using a whole fish or fish fins, bones and heads. After cooking take the bones and meats out and sieve the stock to remove small bones and peppercorns. Extract the bone marrow out of large tubular bones while they are still warm: to do that bang the bone on a thick wooden chopping board. The gelatinous soft tissues around the bones and the bone marrow provide some of the best healing remedies for the gut lining and the immune system; you can consume them with every meal in a healing dietary protocol. Take off all the soft tissues from fish bones and heads and reserve for adding to soups later. The meat or fish stock will keep well in the fridge for at least 7 days or it can be frozen. Do not use microwaves for warming up the stock, use conventional stove (microwaves destroy food).
Simple Broth Recipes
Ingredients in Italics are optional
1 whole free-range chicken or 2 to 3 pounds of bony chicken parts, such as necks, backs, breastbones and wings*
gizzards from one chicken (optional)
2-4 chicken feet (optional)
4 quarts cold filtered water
2 tablespoons vinegar
1 large onion, coarsely chopped
2 carrots, peeled and coarsely chopped
3 celery stalks, coarsely chopped
1 bunch parsley
*Note: Farm-raised, free-range chickens give the best results. Many battery-raised chickens will not produce stock that gels.
If you are using a whole chicken, cut off the wings and remove the neck, fat glands and the gizzards from the cavity. Cut chicken parts into several pieces. (If you are using a whole chicken, remove the neck and wings and cut them into several pieces.) Place chicken or chicken pieces in a large stainless steel pot with water, vinegar and all vegetables except parsley. Let stand 30 minutes to 1 hour. Bring to a boil, and remove scum that rises to the top. Reduce heat, cover and simmer for 6 to 8 hours. The longer you cook the stock, the richer and more flavorful it will be. About 10 minutes before finishing the stock, add parsley. This will impart additional mineral ions to the broth.
Remove whole chicken or pieces with a slotted spoon. If you are using a whole chicken, let cool and remove chicken meat from the carcass. Reserve for other uses, such as chicken salads, enchiladas, sandwiches or curries. Strain the stock into a large bowl and reserve in your refrigerator until the fat rises to the top and congeals. Skim off this fat and reserve the stock in covered containers in your refrigerator or freezer.
Beef Stock/Bone Broth
about 4 pounds beef marrow and knuckle bones
1 calves foot, cut into pieces (optional)
3 pounds meaty rib or neck bones
4 or more quarts cold filtered water
1/2 cup vinegar
3 onions, coarsely chopped
3 carrots, coarsely chopped
3 celery stalks, coarsely chopped
several sprigs of fresh thyme, tied together
1 teaspoon dried green peppercorns, crushed
l bunch parsley
Place the knuckle and marrow bones and optional calves foot in a very large pot with vinegar and cover with water. Let stand for one hour. Meanwhile, place the meaty bones in a roasting pan and brown at 350 degrees in the oven. When well browned, add to the pot along with the vegetables. Pour the fat out of the roasting pan, add cold water to the pan, set over a high flame and bring to a boil, stirring with a wooden spoon to loosen up coagulated juices. Add this liquid to the pot. Add additional water, if necessary, to cover the bones; but the liquid should come no higher than within one inch of the rim of the pot, as the volume expands slightly during cooking. Bring to a boil. A large amount of scum will come to the top, and it is important to remove this with a spoon. After you have skimmed, reduce heat and add the thyme and crushed peppercorns.
Simmer stock for at least 12 and as long as 72 hours. Just before finishing, add the parsley and simmer another 10 minutes. You will now have a pot of rather repulsive-looking brown liquid containing globs of gelatinous and fatty material. It doesn’t even smell particularly good. But don’t despair. After straining you will have a delicious and nourishing clear broth that forms the basis for many other recipes in this book.
Remove bones with tongs or a slotted spoon. Strain the stock into a large bowl. Let cool in the refrigerator and remove the congealed fat that rises to the top. Transfer to smaller containers and to the freezer for long-term storage.
3 or 4 whole carcasses, including heads, of non-oily fish such as sole, turbot, rockfish or snapper
2 tablespoons butter (for dairy free- use avocado oil or eliminate all together)
1/4 cup vinegar
about 3 quarts cold filtered water
2 onions, coarsely chopped
1 carrot, coarsely chopped
several sprigs fresh thyme
several sprigs parsley
1 bay leaf
1/2 cup dry white wine or vermouth
Ideally, fish stock is made from the bones of sole or turbot. In Europe, you can buy these fish on the bone. The fish monger skins and filets the fish for you, giving you the filets for your evening meal and the bones for making the stock and final sauce. Unfortunately, in America sole arrives at the fish market preboned. But snapper, rock fish and other non-oily fish work equally well; and a good fish merchant will save the carcasses for you if you ask him. As he normally throws these carcasses away, he shouldn’t charge you for them. Be sure to take the heads as well as the body—these are especially rich in iodine and fat-soluble vitamins. Classic cooking texts advise against using oily fish such as salmon for making broth, probably because highly unsaturated fish oils become rancid during the long cooking process.
Melt butter in a large stainless steel pot. Add the vegetables and cook very gently, about 1/2 hour, until they are soft. Add wine and bring to a boil. Add the fish carcasses and cover with cold, filtered water. Add vinegar. Bring to a boil and skim off the scum and impurities as they rise to the top. Tie herbs together and add to the pot. Reduce heat, cover and simmer for at least 4 hours or as long as 24 hours. Remove carcasses with tongs or a slotted spoon and strain the liquid into pint-sized storage containers for refrigerator or freezer. Chill well in the refrigerator and remove any congealed fat before transferring to the freezer for long-term storage.
4 Healing Winter Soups
Feel free to substitute different vegetables; just make sure you have 8-12 cups
1 medium onion, diced
1/4 cup fat (chicken, duck, beef, ghee)
6 garlic cloves, mashed
1/2 cup water
2 medium carrots
1 small head broccoli
1 bunch kale, stems removed
1 medium zucchini
1/2 medium cabbage
About 3 tbsp. dried basil, 1.5 tbsp. dried oregano, 1 bay leaf, 1/2 tsp. black pepper, and a pinch of fennel seed
1 quart bone broth (or a little more)
Saute the onion in fat; sprinkle with salt as you go.
Chop the veggies as small as you like. When the onion is translucent, stir in the garlic. Stir for 30 seconds, then add the water. Add herbs and the veggies, bring to a boil, stir well, and reduce heat.
Simmer covered for about an hour, stirring every so often, until the veggies are really super tender.
Add the broth, stir well, and check for salt. Heat gently until desired temperature is reached (don't boil the broth, it will turn into gelatin and then you won't have a brothy soup anymore!).
Creamy Ginger & Veggie Soup
4-5 cups cut veggies (such as winter or butternut squash, broccoli or a medley of veggies)
1 large onion, coarsely chopped (or 3 leeks)
up to 1 whole head of garlic, peeled and coarsely chopped
1 large knob of ginger, peeled and coarsely chopped
4-5 cups homemade bone broth
Heat a large chefs pan or small stock pot over medium heat with a dollop of lard. Add onions and sautee for about 5 minutes.
Add in garlic and ginger, sautee a few more minutes.
Add main veggies and stock. Start with less stock if you want a really thick soup, you can always add more later.
Bring to a simmer and let simmer for about 25 minutes.
Allow to cool slightly.
Using an immersion blender or food processor puree the soup.
Add more fat, lard or whatever animal fat you have. You may also use coconut milk for more creamy consistency.
Chicken “Noodle” (grain free, paleo-
friendly, GAPS friendly)
2 quarts chicken stock
4 boneless, skinless chicken breasts
6 stalks celery, chopped
6 carrots, chopped
16 ounces kelp noodles
1/4 cup chopped green onion or parsley
Celtic sea salt
Pour chicken stock into a large pot and bring to a simmer. Add chicken breasts, celery, carrots and noodles and cook for about 20 minutes until chicken is cooked through. Using a pair of tongs, remove chicken from the soup and cut into bite-size pieces. Add chicken back to pot. Season soup with sea salt if needed. To serve, ladle into bowls and garnish with green onion.
*Kelp noodles are made from from sea kelp. They are high in minerals and low in calories. Their unique texture is perfect in salad with thinly sliced vegetables. Served hot in broth, they lose their pleasant crunch, but soften and absorb flavors well.
1 carrot diced
1 celery stalk diced
1 shallot minced
1/4 cup ghee
2 oz. shiitake mushrooms soaked in 5 cups water until soft, chopped
4 oz maitake mushrooms chopped
8 oz cremini mushrooms sliced
1/2 cup white wine (optional)
6 cups chicken broth
meat from one chicken
3 garlic scapes sliced thinly
1/4 cup fresh parsley chopped
2 Tbs fresh tarragon chopped
1/4 cup coconut cream
In a large stock pot, saute the carrot, celery, and shallots in the ghee until tender. Reserving the soaking liquid from the shiitakes, add the mushrooms to the stock pot. Saute until mushrooms are soft and golden. Add white wine, if using, and scrape any browned bits from the bottom of the pot.
Add the reserved mushroom liquid and the chicken stock. Add the chicken meat. Bring to a boil, reduce heat, cover, and simmer until veggies are quite tender (about 15-20 minutes).
Remove the pot from the heat and add the scapes and the herbs to the pot. Cover the pot and allow to “cook” in the hot soup for about 5 minutes. Stir in the coconut cream until incorporated.